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python How to use keras for XOR

scaling factor ‘b’

However, when perceptions are applied, we can get a better understanding of the xor dataset. XOR can be represented by a two-layer neural network. Perceptrons are networks of linear separable functions that can be used to determine linear function types. Despite this, it was discovered in 1969 that perceptrons are incapable of learning the XOR function.

The exclusive-or function is not linearly separable, which means that it cannot be represented by a single line in a two-dimensional space. A single neural network can only represent linear functions, which means that it is not able to learn the exclusive-or function. Tessellation surface formed by πt-neuron model and proposed model for two-dimensional input. As we can see, the Perceptron predicted the correct output for logical OR. Similarly, we can train our Perceptron to predict for AND and XOR operators. But there is a catch while the Perceptron learns the correct mapping for AND and OR.

However, this model also has a similar issue in training for higher-order inputs. A neural network is a machine learning algorithm that is used to model complex patterns in data. One of the most popular applications of neural networks is to solve the XOR problem. The XOR problem is a classic example of a problem that is not linearly separable.

model for solving

It is because of the input dimension-dependent adaptable scaling factor (given in equation ). The effect of the scaling factor is already discussed in the previous section (as depicted in Figure 2). We have seen that a larger scaling factor supports BP and results from proper convergence in the case of higher dimensional input. The significance of scaling has already been demonstrated in Figure 2. Figure 4 is the demonstration of the optimal value of scaling factor ‘b’. XOR is a classical problem in the artificial neural network .


Forecasting involving the time series has been performed using the multiplicative neuron models [24–26]. Yildirim et al. have proposed a threshold single multiplicative neuron model for time series prediction . They utilized a threshold value and used the particle swarm optimization and harmony search algorithm to obtain the optimum weight, bias, and threshold values. In , Yolcu et al. have used autoregressive coefficients to predict the weights and biases for time series modeling. A recurrent multiplicative neuron model was presented in for forecasting time series.

And this was the only purpose of coding xor neural network from scratch. Define the optimization algorithm to update the parameters. We are using a more simple optimization technique here.

Some machine learning algorithms like neural networks are already a black box, we enter input in them and expect magic to happen. Still, it is important to understand what is happening behind the scenes in a neural network. Coding a simple neural network from scratch acts as a Proof of Concept in this regard and further strengthens our understanding of neural networks. Squared Error LossSince, there may be many weights contributing to this error, we take the partial derivative, to find the minimum error, with respect to each weight at a time. The change in weights are different for the output layer weights (W31 & W32) and different for the hidden layer weights . Backpropagation is a way to update the weights and biases of a model starting from the output layer all the way to the beginning.


However, neural networks are a type of algorithm that’s capable of learning. For learning to happen, we need to train our model with sample input/output pairs, such learning is called supervised learning. Supervised learning approach has given amazing result in deep learning when applied to diverse tasks like face recognition, object identification, NLP tasks. Most of the practically applied deep learning models in tasks such as robotics, automotive etc are based on supervised learning approach only.

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Therefore, our proposed model has overcome the limitations of the previous πt-neuron model. Table 5 provide values of the threshold obtained by both the pt-neuron model and proposed models. In experiment #2 and experiment #3, the pt-neuron model has predicted threshold values beyond the range of inputs, i.e., .

Last Linear Transformation in Representational Space

After compiling the model, it’s time to fit the training data with an epoch value of 1000. After training the model, we will calculate the accuracy score and print the predicted output on the test data. The learning rate determines how much weight and bias will be changed after every iteration so that the loss will be minimized, and we have set it to 0.1. We have defined the getORdata function for fetching inputs and outputs. Similarly, we can define getANDdata and getXORdata functions using the same set of inputs. We start with random synaptic weights, which almost always leads to incorrect outputs.

Shiho Kim supervised the study and was responsible for project administration and and funding acquisition. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the paper. For correspondence, any of the authors can be addressed (Ashutosh Mishra; ; Jaekwang Cha; , and Shiho Kim; ). Scaling Factor and loss Obtained by Πt-Neuron and Proposed Models with Increasing Input Dimension of N-bit Parity Problem.

Further, we have compared the training performance of the πt-neuron model with our proposed model for the 10-bit parity problem. Training results of both models have been represented in Figure 7 (by plotting binary cross-entropy loss versus the number of iterations). A XOR neural network is a type of artificial neural network that is used for solving the exclusive-or problem. The exclusive-or problem is a two-input, two-output problem that is not linearly separable. The XOR neural network is composed of two input nodes, two hidden nodes, and one output node. The hidden nodes are connected to the input nodes with weights that are learned during training.

Even with pretty good hyperparameters, I observed that the learned XOR model is trapped in a local minimum about 15% of the time. It works even better when the input is shifted to have zero mean. John, “Time series prediction with single multiplicative neuron model,” Applied Soft Computing, vol. H. Negm, “Modeling and design of high-frequency structures using artificial neural networks and space mapping,” Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, , Elsevier, vol.

Modelling the OR part

These system were able to learn formal mathematical rules to solve problem and were deemed intelligent systems. To solve this problem, active research started in mimicking human mind and in 1958 once such popular learning network called “Perceptron” was proposed by Frank Rosenblatt. Perceptrons got a lot of attention at that time and later on many variations and extensions of perceptrons appeared with time. But, not everyone believed in the potential of Perceptrons, there were people who believed that true AI is rule based and perceptron is not a rule based.


The main principle behind it is that each parameter changes in proportion to how much it affects the network’s output. Though there are many kinds of activation functions, we’ll be using a simple linear activation function for our perceptron. The linear activation function has no effect on its input and outputs it as is. These parameters are what we update when we talk about “training” a model.

In this case, no one hyperplane can separate the output classes for this function definition. Murase, “Single-layered complex-valued neural network for real-valued classification problems,” Neurocomputing, vol. Effect of scaling factor on the gradient of the sigmoid function.

This means that each data point can only belong to one class, and no two data points can be in the same class. This type of dataset is often used in machine learning and data mining applications, where it is important to be able to distinguish between different classes of data. The XOR function cannot be learned by a single neuron.

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Hence we cannot directly solve XOR problem with two neurons. Following images show no matter how many ways we draw a line in 2D space we cannot differentiate one side’s output with the other. For example for the first one and both inputs makes XOR to give 1. But for the input the output is 0 but we cannot make it separated and unfortunately they are falling in the same side. The first representing logic AND and the other logic OR.

Selection of a loss and cost functions depends on the kind of output we are targeting. For classification we use cross entropy cost function. In Keras we have binary cross entropy cost funtion for binary classification and categorical cross entropy function for multi class classification. Based on the problem at hand we expect different kinds of output e.g. for cat recognition task we expect system to output Yes or No for cat or not cat respectively.

The sample code from this post can be found here.

But before XOR problem with two neurons I want to discuss on linearly separability. A problem is linearly separable if only one hyperplane can make the decision boundary. Neural networks are complex to code compared to machine learning models. If we compile the whole code of a single-layer perceptron, it will exceed 100 lines. To reduce the efforts and increase the efficiency of code, we will take the help of Keras, an open-source python library built on top of TensorFlow.

  • There are various schemes for random initialization of weights.
  • The implemented neural network evaluates XOR for two noisy inputs, A and B.
  • Therefore, many researchers tried to find a suitable way out to solve the XOR problem [4–15].

This plot code is a bit more complex than the previous code samples but gives an extremely helpful insight into the workings of the neural network decision process for XOR. Let the outer layer weights be wo while the hidden layer weights be wh. Keep in mind that the XOR function can’t be solved by a simple Perceptron. We need a Neural Network with as least one hidden layer. In this article you saw how such a Neural Network could look like. If you want dive deeper into Deep Learning and Neural Networks, have a look at our Recommendations.

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The output node is connected to the hidden nodes with weights that are also learned during training. The XOR neural network is trained using the backpropagation algorithm. This blog is intended to familiarize you with the crux of neural networks and show how neurons work. The choice of parameters like the number of layers, neurons per layer, activation function, loss function, optimization algorithm, and epochs can be a game changer. And with the support of python libraries like TensorFlow, Keras, and PyTorch, deciding these parameters becomes easier and can be done in a few lines of code. Stay with us and follow up on the next blogs for more content on neural networks.

payback time definition: Payback Period What is a payback period?


Full BioAmy is an ACA and the CEO and founder of OnPoint Learning, a financial training company delivering training to financial professionals. She has nearly two decades of experience in the financial industry and as a financial instructor for industry professionals and individuals. Julia Kagan is a financial/consumer journalist and former senior editor, personal finance, of Investopedia.

Despite its drawbacks, the payback method is the simplest method to analyze different project/investments. The project that provides a faster return of investment is chosen. The capital costs have a negative impact on the payback time, hence only the lower power fans are economically viable. The cumulative positive cash flows are determined for each period. Additional complexity arises when the cash flow changes sign several times; i.e., it contains outflows in the midst or at the end of the project lifetime.

Annual percentage rates vary from 23% to about 78%, depending on amount borrowed and payback period. Investors will see a swift return, with a payback period of between a year and 18 months. Crops were also sometimes used for borrowing and payback at the same rate of interest as credit in cash. The union has been treated very badly, and now it’s payback time, and strike action will go ahead.


Instantiation of a model as a robot can be a valuable aid in evaluating the costs versus paybacks of adding complications to that model. Amanda Bellucco-Chatham is an editor, writer, and fact-checker with years of experience researching personal finance topics. Specialties include general financial planning, career development, lending, retirement, tax preparation, and credit.

As the equation above shows, the payback period calculation is a simple one. It does not account for the time value of money, the effects of inflation, or the complexity of investments that may have unequal cash flow over time. Most capital budgeting formulas, such as net present value , internal rate of return , and discounted cash flow, consider the TVM. So if you pay an investor tomorrow, it must include an opportunity cost. The TVM is a concept that assigns a value to this opportunity cost. In the scenario of calculating a payback period, we are looking at projected returns on the investment over a number of months or years, and therefore disregarding what amount of interest could be made.

Using the Payback Method

These cash flows are then reduced by their present value factor to reflect the discounting process. This can be done using the present value function and a table in a spreadsheet program. Payback period is often used as an analysis tool because it is easy to apply and easy to understand for most individuals, regardless of academic training or field of endeavor. When used carefully or to compare similar investments, it can be quite useful. As a stand-alone tool to compare an investment to “doing nothing,” payback period has no explicit criteria for decision-making .

Before taking on a new project or investing the money for a new project, make sure that you are comfortable with the payback period you’ve set yourself. A payback period is the amount of time needed to earn back the cost of an investment. Capital costs are higher and the payback period is longer, and the per unit costs of power are therefore generally greater. Or the numbers suddenly start fluctuating downwards from year 3 on? It is predicted that the machine will generate $120,000 in net cash flow every year.

  • No such discount is allocated for in the payback period calculation.
  • Maximum exergy efficiency and optimum source temperature of power generation system with incremental number of additional outputs.
  • This means it will only take 3 years for Jimmy to recoup his money.

The payback period refers to how long it takes to reach that breakeven. The payback period disregards the time value of money and is determined by counting the number of years it takes to recover the funds invested. For example, if it takes five years to recover the cost of an investment, the payback period is five years. Unlike other methods of capital budgeting, the payback period ignores the time value of money . This is the idea that money is worth more today than the same amount in the future because of the earning potential of the present money.

Terminal value determines the value of a business or project beyond the forecast period when future cash flows can be estimated. The modified payback is calculated as the moment in which the cumulative positive cash flow exceeds the total cash outflow. In essence, the payback period is used very similarly to a Breakeven Analysis, but instead of the number of units to cover fixed costs, it considers the amount of time required to return an investment. In some cases, fuel cell systems for cogeneration of heat and power may be used in a heat-following mode, either using or exporting generated electricity. A project costs $2Mn and yields a profit of $30,000 after depreciation of 10% but before tax of 30%. That’s why business owners and managers need to use capital budgeting techniques to determine which projects will deliver the best returns, and yield the most profitable outcome.

Disadvantages of Payback

Depending on the calculated payback period of a project, management can decide to either accept or reject the project. An investment project will be accepted if the payback period is less than or equal to the management’s maximum desired payback period. XYZ Ltd is thinking of taking a project which requires initial investments of Rs. 2,00,000.


Discounted savings are the term within the summation sign (Σ) in Eq. From equities, fixed income to derivatives, the CMSA certification bridges the gap from where you are now to where you want to be — a world-class capital markets analyst. •A cascade system can be employed, which uses the hood exhaust air to feed the supply fan of the wet section, which will reduce the fuel demand for wet section burners.

The augmented exergy efficiency is more accentuated when the number of outputs increases from one to four, after which it stabilizes. It fails to consider the investment total profitability (i.e. it considers cash flows from the initiation of the project until the payback period and fails to consider the cash flows after that period. Considering that the payback period is simple and takes a few seconds to calculate, it can be suitable for projects of small investments.

Payback period – What is a payback period?

ClearTax can also help you in getting your business registered for Goods & Services Tax Law. Building a new power station has a lead-up of three to five years just for implementation, and a payback period of 20 to 30 years. Since the new building will have a metered water supply there is likely to be an economic payback period of around years for this system.

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Here, the return to the investment consists of reduced operating costs. According to payback method, machine Y is more desirable than machine X because it has a shorter payback period than machine X. Unlike net present value and internal rate of return method, payback method does not take into account the time value of money. Under payback method, an investment project is accepted or rejected on the basis of payback period. Payback period means the period of time that a project requires to recover the money invested in it. Note that the primary energy saving is calculated by assuming reference “separate” energy systems used for meeting the same electricity and heat demands.

The payback time definition period can not be the only strategy used to determine the project to be chosen, regardless of its simplicity. This means the payback period is more than managements maximum desired payback period , so they should reject the project. This means the payback period is less than managements maximum desired payback period , so they should accept the project. A payback period is the length of time a business expects to pass before it recovers its initial investment in a product or service.

Is a Higher Payback Period Better Than a Lower Payback Period?

The period method is particularly helpful to a company that is small and doesn’t have a large amount of investments in play. All other techniques of capital budgeting consider the concept of the time value of money. Time value of money means that a rupee today is more valuable than a rupee tomorrow.


When cash flows are uniform over the useful life of the asset, then the calculation is made through the following formula. Net present value is the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows over a period of time. In simple words, it is the time period to recover the cost of an investment. Or you can say the length of time that the investment will take to repay the cash outflows while purchasing the asset. It act as a foundation for whether to go for the investment or not. There is no minimum rate of return but, at present, the majority of schemes have a payback period of up to five years.

Example of the Discounted Payback Period

The project is expected to generate Rs. 50,000 per year for 5 years. Cash flows are forecasted to be steady, the averaging method can deliver an accurate idea of payback period. But if the company could encounter major growth in the near future, the payback period may be a little wide of the mark. Evaluating payback period helps companies recognize different investment opportunities and determine which product or project is most likely to recoup their cash in the shortest time.

rising broadening wedge pattern: Ascending Broadening Wedges

ascending and descending

When this pattern is found in a downward trend, it is considered a reversal pattern, as the contraction of the range indicates the downtrend is losing steam. The rising wedge pattern is a common technical analysis chart pattern, known for its bearish breakdowns in both uptrends and downtrends. However, not all rising wedges are bearish and certain conditions must be met in order for the pattern to be valid. The sentiment exhibited during the formation of a rising wedge is that the market believes an uptrend may be forming as prices increase during the pattern.

bullish continuation

The falling wedge is a bullish pattern that signals the continuation of the upward trend or the reversal of the downward trend. The rising wedge is a bearish pattern that signals the continuation of the downward trend or the reversal of an upward trend. So, all you have to do now is wait for the price to break out to the upside from the falling wedge forex pattern. Look for circumstances where a rising wedge forex pattern develops in an uptrend and the robust economy’s prospects are fading.

This pattern looks like a megaphone pointing down and to the right. Rising wedges are most often of the converging type, not to be confused with the ascending broadening wedge . In a rising wedge, the low prior to the wedge formation is the minimum target to take profit. Rising wedges have a throwback and pullback rate of as much as 72%, meaning there is a return to the trend line before the follow-through move to the target. The ascending broadening wedge is a chart pattern that can be traded in several ways; either as a bullish/bearish breakout or with a swing trading strategy. Here is a price chart made of both ascending and descending broadening wedge patterns.

In this post, we perform an advanced analysis of broadening wedges patterns. We provide a description of each pattern and its implications. In a rising wedge, both boundary lines slant up from left to right. Although both lines point in the same direction, the lower line rises at a steeper angle than the upper one. Prices usually decline after breaking through the lower boundary line. As far as volumes are concerned, they keep on declining with each new price advance or wave up, indicating that the demand is weakening at the higher price level.

Broadening Wedge Patterns (Ascending and Descending Broadening Wedge Patterns)

When connecting these highs and lows, the trend lines form a widening pattern that looks like a megaphone or reverse symmetrical triangle. A descending broadening wedge is a bullish continuation formation and appears in the middle of an uptrend. And this pattern completes when the price breaks the resistance line. An ascending broadening wedge is confirmed/valid if it has good oscillation between the two upward lines. The upper line is the resistance line; the lower line is the support line. Generate trade ideas elsewhere and then wait for the forex falling wedge pattern to assist you in determining the best entry level, stop loss, and take profit levels.

What is the success rate of a broadening wedge?

Statistics of the ascending broadening wedge after a peak

In 80% of cases, the exit is bearish. In 75% of cases, an ascending broadening wedge is a reversal pattern. In 60% of cases, an ascending broadening wedge's price objective is achieved when the support line is broken.

This is why many technical analysts view them as potential turning points in the market. This will help you manage your risk and protect your profits. Wait for the market to confirm the pattern before entering your trade.

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Price breaking out point creates another difference from the triangle. Falling and rising wedges are a small part of intermediate or major trend. As they are reserved for minor trends, they are not considered to be major patterns. Once that basic or primary trend resumes itself, the wedge pattern loses its effectiveness as a technical indicator. Unlike the majority of other consolidation patterns, broadening formations feature increasingly wide ranges and are subject to much greater levels of volatility as time passes. A rising wedge represents a short term consolidation phase where the market believes to be in a bullish trend.

The downtrend preceded the formation of Ascending Broadening Wedge Pattern in the chart. Again, the potential target can be approx the price range of the pattern. Most aggressive traders even prefer shorting at the resistance line at around $55 by placing a stop-loss above the previous high. Traders can look for a short opportunity after the price retest the previous support trend line at around $47 for a minimum target of $40-41. Hence, a breakdown of the price below the lower trend line provides a perfect opportunity to short.

Different polling results or candidate policies may cause a market to become very bullish at some points and very bearish at other points. Broadening formations may also occur during earnings season when companies may report differing quarterly financial results that can cause bouts of optimism or pessimism. Gold price chart by TradingViewThe price broke the resistance line of the formation at the $900 price level.

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During the formation of an ascending broadening wedge, volumes do not behave in any particular way but they increase strongly when the support line breaks. In a falling wedge, both boundary lines slant down from left to right. Volume keeps on diminishing and trading activity slows down due to narrowing prices. There comes the breaking point, and trading activity after the breakout differs.

What is an ascending broadening wedge?

To test the reliability of this pattern we looked at the five major forex pairs EURUSD, USDJPY, GBPUSD, USDCHF and USDCAD. It does not mean exhaustion on the part of the buyers; rather, it indicates the sellers trying to gain control. Anderson is CPA, doctor of accounting, and an accounting and finance professor who has been working in the accounting and finance industries for more than 20 years. Her expertise covers a wide range of accounting, corporate finance, taxes, lending, and personal finance areas. It will draw real-time zones that show you where the price is likely to test in the future. Each of these lines must have been touched at least twice to validate the pattern.

As with everything you do while trading the Forex market, it’s important that you track your results both good and bad. You see, when it comes to the “A+” setups—those of the highest quality—there are only so many that materialize within a 30-day period. In my experience, that number ranges from three or four on the low end to maybe ten during an active month. By staying away from the lower time frames , I avoid the intraday “noise” that can result from news events and other unscheduled risks. This alone was a red flag that the entry method wasn’t going to offer us a favorable enough risk to reward.


A falling wedge pattern is the bullish analogue of the bearish rising wedge chart pattern. The falling wedge differs in its shape from the rising wedge as well as the results produced. The falling wedge will have two converging trend lines that slope downward, before an upward bullish breakout. On rare occasions, a falling wedge pattern can break down in a bearish direction.

514 wedge pattern stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. See wedge pattern stock video clips

Crossing and resistance lines meet at so called convergences or confluent areas. Though the upside breakout probability seems to be less than the downside breakdown, even such an upside breakout gives great trading rewards. The price touched a high of $64.92 in June’2021, an approximate increase of $14 after the upside breakout. The traders can look for a potential long trade above the upper trendline, i.e., $51.

  • Short positions are closed if the price moves up above these levels.
  • This pattern may form when large investors spread their buying over a period of time.
  • As with all broadening patterns, you should remember that the market direction can be up, down or consolidating.
  • Because the pair never retraced a portion of the initial breakout, the risk to reward ratio was questionable.

Visit the visual chart pattern index to hunt for other chart patterns. Identifying a Right-Angled Broadening Wedge Right-Angled Broadening Wedges come in two varieties, ascending and descending. They consist of a horizontal trend line and a sloping trendline.

CASE 2: formation of an ascending broadening wedge after a trough

The descending triangle is a chart pattern used in technical analysis. The pattern usually forms at the end of a downtrend but can also occur as a consolidation in an uptrend. The price may reflect the random disagreement between investors, or it may reflect a more fundamental factor. For example, many countries experience broadening formations due to heightened political risk ahead of an upcoming election.

The list of chart pattern analysts is long and chart patterns have been around for decades. When we trade broadening formations, we have no choice but to break. Last but not least, we have the right-angled broadening wedges.


Instead, we’re entering short as soon as we have a confirmed breakout. The image below illustrates the characteristics of the formation. This is an important consideration compared to traditional wedges, which signal volatility compression. Let’s imagine the EUR/NZD market has been decreasing for some time because interest rates in New Zealand have been improving compared to the eurozone. Traders are prone to being too enthused, and as a result, markets frequently experience periods of exorbitant growth.

How likely is a descending broadening wedge?

Statistics of the descending broadening wedge after a bullish movement. In 80% of cases, the exit is bullish. In 75% of cases, a descending broadening wedge is a reversal pattern. In 60% of cases, a descending broadening wedge's price objective is achieved when the resistance line is broken.

Once prices move out of the specific boundary lines of a falling wedge, they are more likely to move sideways and saucer-out before they resume the basic trend. Notice that we have a support and resistance level as well as the price action that forms the consolidation. What makes it a “broadening” pattern is, of course, the fact that the two levels are further apart at the end than they are at the beginning.

  • A stop-loss order is set at the level of the previous local maximum, a trailing stop is used to close the short position.
  • The higher highs and higher lows representing the peaks and troughs are joined to form upper and lower trend lines.
  • Notice that we have a support and resistance level as well as the price action that forms the consolidation.
  • Broadening wedges can be either bullish or bearish depending on how they form within an existing trend.
  • Because of the confusion and surprise, the resulting move can be particularly strong.

A rising broadening wedge pattern pattern is considered to be a pattern which is forming at the top or bottom of the trend. It is a type of formation in which trading activities are confined within converging straight lines which form a pattern. This pattern has a rising or falling slant pointing in the same direction. It differs from the triangle in the sense that both boundary lines either slope up or down.

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The two trend lines should converge, with price action each trend line a two to three times each for a total of five touches to be valid. The chart above of Home Depot shows prices dropping in a descending broadening wedge. A noteworthy aspect of this chart is that there is a directional hint that the breakout would be upward when prices failed to drop back down to the downtrending support line.

What does a bullish wedge look like?

The Falling Wedge is a bullish pattern that begins wide at the top and contracts as prices move lower. This price action forms a cone that slopes down as the reaction highs and reaction lows converge.

synonyms for appreciation: Appreciate synonyms Best 67 synonyms for appreciate


We, as managers, are always incomplete without synonyms for appreciation-working employees like you. Thanks for your support and hard work that you always put in our work every single day. An employee’s hard work is the fuel to great company culture. The thought of being extra cautious about what you’ll say might be halting you from appreciating your employees. Praise – When someone speaks highly of your achievements and compliments you for the results, it is a form of kudos.

synonyms for kudos

To cherish is to prize or treasure, but connotes greater affection for or attachment to the thing cherished she cherished her friends See also syn. The words treasure and appreciate are synonyms, but do differ in nuance. Specifically, treasure emphasizes jealously safeguarding something considered precious. See how your sentence looks with different synonyms. Here is the list of useful synonyms for Thank You which help you improve your English.

How to use appreciate in a sentence

Your ability to take every task with utmost sincerity has left us all stunned as we try to derive inspiration from you. Believe me; you are the perfect employee which every employer desires to have in their team. Your desire and willingness fuel our mutual efforts and guide us to success. The service you provided exceeded all expectations. I would also like to add how much you mean to our company.

  • “You are awesome” – A flattering and exciting phrase that can be used to recognize any kind of success.
  • You might hear them from an older person, but from younger people, they might be used sarcastically.
  • We appreciated this peace of mind when riding off the beaten path.
  • Saying this, I wish you all the success in life.
  • These are usually used when the thing you’re thanking a person for is relatively small.

If you use them in a casual situation, you might get funny looks, but it will get your point across. Use filters to view other words, we have 926 synonyms for appreciation. Use a digital rewards and recognition tool to send meaningful appreciation to colleagues. Here, I’ll be listing down words of appreciation for employees from two distinct points of view i.e. Adding a little personalized touch along with your employee appreciation messages would be a nice add-on. For this, you can opt for adding a personalized gift like a pen with the employee’s name on it.

Synonyms for Appreciation

They are often found in professional contexts, such as in congratulating someone on completing a difficult task or project or thanking someone for their support or help. However, they can also be used more casually to show appreciation for an individual’s accomplishment. Synonyms of the term ‘kudos’ are meaningful because they can add variety and depth to a message or conversation. By using different synonyms of ‘kudos,’ one can better emphasize their point, making it more easily understood by others.

While the synonyms value and appreciate are close in meaning, value implies rating a thing highly for its intrinsic worth. ‘Thank you’ is one of the first expressions people learn when they start learning English and this phrase is also very important in our communication in daily life. Show appreciation to your customer service team with Customer Service Kudos! Get recognition for great work and improve customer satisfaction today.

appreciation > synonyms

Then also, I would like to extend my best regards and assure our meaningful collaboration in the near future as well. Thank you, mate, for all the extra miles you went ahead to help the entire team and me. We highly acknowledge your efforts and kindness shown towards us.

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Posted: Sat, 25 Feb 2023 05:01:48 GMT [source]

Antonyms are used to express the opposite of a word. These ways of saying thank you are fairly outdated. You might hear them from an older person, but from younger people, they might be used sarcastically. If you use these for genuine thanks, be sure that the other person knows you’re being serious. These can be used in formal situations or casual ones, and they’re relatively generic. If you’re at a complete loss on how to thank someone, you can use one of these.

This site allows you to find in one place, all the synonyms and antonyms of the English language. is more than 70,800 synonyms and 47,200 antonyms available. These synonyms for the word appreciation are provided for your information only. Kudos is an expression of admiration or approval that shows gratitude toward another person’s achievements. Synonyms for kudos include words like an accolade, praise, recognition, and commendation. Employee acknowledgment can also be expressed as kudos awards, and honors bestowed upon individuals who have accomplished noteworthy feats.

This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Failing to recognize your employees may often result in a demotivated workforce not suitable for business. Henceforth, putting up the right word to appreciate your employees’ or colleagues’ work becomes crucial.


Acknowledgment – When your manager acknowledges the hard work you put in to complete a task, it is a sign of kudos given for your efforts. A synonym is a word, adjective, verb or expression that has the same meaning as another, or almost the same meaning. Synonyms are other words that mean the same thing. This avoids repetitions in a sentence without changing its meaning. It was a love of the air and sky and flying, the lure of adventure, the appreciation of beauty.

You can also use them if someone has given you a gift that you don’t actually care for, when you don’t want to either lie or hurt their feelings. In this latter case, make sure your tone is genuine or it might come across as sarcasm. These are genuine expressions of thanks that are usually used for friends or family. You can say these when someone has done something big for you, but probably not something life-changing. List of 65 powerful ways to say Thank You in English with pictures and video lessons. Learn these thanks synonyms to enlarge your vocabulary and enhance your communication skill in English.

  • Acknowledging someone’s efforts or results with kudos is an excellent way tobuild moralein the workplace and recognize excellence.
  • In some situations, the words cherish and appreciate are roughly equivalent.
  • This site allows you to find in one place, all the synonyms and antonyms of the English language.
  • Gratitude – Expressing gratitude to someone for their contribution shows that their work was noticed and appreciated.

Acknowledge the purpose for which you are appreciating them. This will help the employee realize the impact of their work. Appreciating your employees doesn’t take much effort. However, you still need a well-written message to make them feel good about their work. Also, don’t forget to celebrate the upcoming Employee Appreciation Day at your workplace.

If you are an employer and looking for positive to share with your employees in the office, go through the list below. The words acknowledge, enjoy, welcome are synonyms for “appreciate”. These versions of “thank you” are a little over the top. This means they’re good to use for really, really big thanks, or as a way to make light of thanking someone for something smaller.


Then let me present you with some helpful tips and ready-to-use examples of words of appreciation for employees to help you with your rewards and recognition efforts. Many a time, you must have thought of appreciating your employees or co-workers for their excellent work. However, you decided to step back at the last minute because you didn’t know what to say or how to convey it.

We appreciated this peace of mind when riding off the beaten path. While seeking answers to scientific questions, it’s worth sometimes taking a step back to appreciate the world’s exquisiteness. There are obviously specific signs for many words available in sign language that are more appropriate for daily usage. This is a great time to sit down and just reflect, it is also a time to show appreciation for the people around you, and for yourself, as well. The definition of an admiration is a person or thing being adored or loved. The act of determining, as in courts of law, what is conformable to law and justice; also, the determination, decision, or sentence of a court, or of a judge.

How to trade a Morning Star candlestick pattern?

bullish reversal pattern

So my advice to you would be to know the patterns that we have discussed here. They are some of the most frequent and profitable patterns to trade on the Indian markets. As you progress, start developing trades based on the thought process behind the bulls’ actions and the bears. This, over time, is probably the best approach to study candlesticks. Before we understand the morning star pattern, we need to understand two common price behaviours –gap up opening and gap down opening.


The formation of a Morning Star pattern typically occurs near the end of a downward trend in the market, and it is indicative of a possible shift in the market’s direction. As with any pattern, you’ll want to place your stop at a point where it’s clear that the morning star has failed. Usually, this would be below the ‘swing’ created by the pattern – if the market drops back below this level, your trade probably won’t return a profit. What you have is the first bearish candle where the sellers are in control and it pushed price all the way down closing near the lows. The Bearish Engulfing pattern is a two-candlestick pattern that consists of an up candlestick followed by a large down candlestick that surrounds or “engulfs” the…

A step by step guide to help beginner and profitable traders have a full overview of all the important skills (and what to learn next 😉) to reach profitable trading ASAP. For the Morning Star pattern to have any importance, it must appear near the bottom of a downtrend. This gives confirmation that the markets are looking to go higher. That it is most likely the buyers are dominating as they are already fighting an uphill battle to overturn the sellers who are in control . As you can see in the example above it’s compact, if the lows are lower or the highs are higher, then this is not a morning doji star.

On day 1 of the pattern , as expected, the market makes a new low and forms a long red candle. There are no specific calculations because a morning star is simply a visual pattern. A morning star is a three-candle pattern in which the second candle contains the low point. The low point, however, is not visible until the third candle has closed. purely on visual patterns can be a risky proposition. A morning star is best when it is backed up by volume and some other indicator like a support level. Otherwise, it is very easy to see morning stars forming whenever a small candle pops up in a downtrend. Generally, a trader wants to see volume increasing throughout the three sessions making up the pattern, with the third day seeing the most volume. High volume on the third day is often seen as a confirmation of the pattern regardless of other indicators. A trader will take up a bullish position in the stock/commodity/pair/etc.

Morning star vs Evening star

Then, a period of lower trading with a reduced range, which indicates indecision in the market, forms the second candle. This is followed by a large white candle, which represents buyers taking control of the market. As the Morning Star is a three-candle pattern, traders often don’t wait for confirmation from a fourth candle before they buy the stock. Traders look at the size of the candles for an indication of the size of the potential reversal.

Traders will often estimate the size of a potential reversal by how large the red and green candlesticks are by the time the formation completes. The larger the candles are and the higher the green candlestick moves relative to the red candlestick, the larger the potential reversal might be. The morning star and the evening star are the last two candlestick patterns we will be studying. It’s good to learn something even if you knew it before,Seriously some of you know all these patterns but don’t know how to use them. Additionally, traders should consider using forex morning star patterns with other patterns to get their full benefits.

  • But in the second, the open and close prices are almost equal.
  • It is well know that the morning star is a reversal pattern that mainly indicates that bulls are taking over the trend and bears are losing the grip.
  • The process to trade an evening star, meanwhile, is again the opposite of a morning star.
  • This star indicates that the downward trend is showing signs of weakness.
  • Instead, they should be used in conjunction with other technical indicators to confirm the strength of the reversal signal.
  • These patterns allow you to enter early in the establishment of the new trend and usually result in very profitable trades.

This shows that supply and demand are equal, and the bears and the bulls are fighting for control. Find the approximate amount of currency units to buy or sell so you can control your maximum risk per position. It is important to note here that the second candle is the most important one. It can be bearish or bullish, as the focus is on indecisiveness and uncertain outcome as to which out of two sides will come out on top.

Conclusion: Morning doji star Pattern, should you trade it?

An engulfing pattern is a 2-bar reversal candlestick patternThe first candle is contained with the 2nd candleA bullish… So make sure you do review the theory behind all candlestick patterns so you actually question the formation and validate it. The reason why I teach the theory behind the momentum of chart patterns and candlesticks is so you can engage with the market at a higher level and filter out bad trades accordingly. Luckily, Tom Bulkowski has worked on these patterns and his findings are that a morning doji star pattern has a 74% chance of generating a bullish reversal.

With over a quarter-million retail traders in the HaiKhuu Trading communities, we have been able to help out hundreds of thousands of stock traders. Reversal indicators – It can be used by other reversal indicators like double exponential moving averages. Accurate – While no pattern is 100% accurate, the morning star tends to do relatively well. This happens mostly after a major news like interest rate decision, nonfarm payrolls, and manufacturing PMIs.

Spot an evening star with a doji instead of a spinning top in the middle? You’ve got a doji evening star, an even stronger signal of impending selling action. As for profit targets, a previous area of resistance or consolidation is generally a solid point to aim for. If the profit target and stop don’t conform to your trading strategy, it might be better leave this opportunity alone and wait for the next one. However, you can also watch and see if volume spikes towards the end of the pattern. This is a sign that more and more buyers are joining the market, which should cause its price to rise.

  • Contracts for Difference are not available for US residents.
  • The morning star candlestick pattern indicates that the bears have been selling aggressively and are exhausted.
  • Candlestick charts are an invaluable tool that technical traders use to determine investor sentiment, which, in turn, can help them determine when to enter or exit trades.

That may sound like a lot, and it is, but it falls well short of the 5,000 or more samples that I like to see. In short, expect the decline to be less severe as more samples become available. A target can be placed at a level with a profit potential double the size of the potential loss inherited in the trade. This is called the risk-reward ratio and a sensible trading strategy will always aim for a target that is larger than your potential risk. If such a pattern appears and all other checklist items comply i.e volume, S&R, Risk Reward Ratio etc…I would go ahead and trade this confidently on the merits of an evening star.

The difference between the two patterns lies in the orientation of the candles. Or if you’re ready to risk real capital, open your live account. The larger it is, right, the more significant this reversal pattern will be. As you noticed, the third candle is where the buyers stepped in and pushed price higher. We introduce people to the world of trading currencies, both fiat and crypto, through our non-drowsy educational content and tools. We’re also a community of traders that support each other on our daily trading journey.

Practise spotting morning stars

A morning star is a three-candlestick pattern that indicates bullish signs to technical analysts. This blog post will look at the morning star pattern and what it could mean for forex traders. The morning star pattern is a valuable tool for identifying potential bullish reversals in the market. By understanding its characteristics, reliability, and the psychology behind its formation, traders can make more informed decisions.

The candlestick chart patterns are used by traders to set up their trades, and predicting the future direction of the price movements. ✅ Morning Star is formed after a downtrend indicating a bullish reversal. Generally made of 3 candlesticks, first being a bearish candle, second a…


As the morning star forms in the third session and rides the uptrend until there are indications of another reversal. Another important factor is the volume that is contributing to the pattern formation. The morning star pattern is very simple to identify on the price chart if you are an intermediate trader. Even beginners can spot it easily on the chart with little practice. The pattern gives us well-defined entries and good risk-reward ratios. Despite this, it is advisable to combine this pattern with some other trading tools to increase reliability.

What Does the Morning Star Candlestick Tell Investors?

The Morning Star pattern occurs after a long, downward-trending market, and signals a reversal of that trend. The first candle is a long bearish candle, indicating a strong downtrend. Continuation patterns indicate that the current trend has a greater probability of continuing rather than the trend being reversed. Continuation patterns generally form in an existing trend when the price action enters a fairly brief period of consolidation.

How to Trade the Evening Star Candlestick Pattern –

How to Trade the Evening Star Candlestick Pattern.

Posted: Wed, 15 Dec 2021 08:00:00 GMT [source]

Both the trendline break and the classic Morning Star pattern could have given traders a potential signal to go long and buy the Midcap 400 exchange traded fund. This technical analysis guide covers the Morning Star Candlestick chart indicator. The pattern is split into three separate candles with relationships between all of them.

What does the Morning Star pattern tell traders?

Driving comes naturally irrespective of which car you are driving. Likewise, once you train your mind to read the thought process behind a candlestick, it does not matter which pattern you see. You will know how to react and set up a trade based on the chart you are seeing. Of course, to reach this stage, you will have to go through the rigour of learning and trading the standard patterns. The ultimate goal is to understand and recognize that candlesticks are a way of thinking about the markets. We have looked at 16 candlestick patterns, and is that all you may wonder?.

The Morning Star is a bullish, bottom reversal pattern that is the opposite of the Evening Star. It warns of weakness in an existing downtrend that could potentially lead to a trend reversal and the establishment of a new uptrend. Like the Evening Star, the Morning Star consists of three candlesticks with the middle candlestick forming a star.

What is the Morning Star Candlestick Pattern?

Trading forex on margin carries a high level of risk and may not be suitable for all investors. Some traders are more aggressive than others, but for simplicity’s sake, it would be best to look for the nearest resistance level. Wait for the formation to complete, you can instantly discredit any doji patterns that form and a large lower or higher wick is formed.

Visit /en-sg/terms-and-policies for the complete evening star doji Disclosure Statement. Then in candlestick three, we have a dramatic fall, erasing more than half of the gains posted two sessions earlier. The process to trade an evening star, meanwhile, is again the opposite of a morning star.

They have a Doji, telling you that buyers and sellers are in equilibrium. The third candle kind of seals the deal where the buyers step in and push price all the way higher and finally closing near the highs. If there is a gap on both sides of the Star candle, the probability of a reversal is even higher.

MintGenie Explains: 5 bullish candle patterns you should know Mint – Mint

MintGenie Explains: 5 bullish candle patterns you should know Mint.

Posted: Fri, 01 Jul 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Before we conclude this chapter let us summarize the entry and stop loss for both long and short trades. Remember, during the candlesticks study, we have not dealt with the trade exit . Practise spotting evening stars on’s trading simulator – with £10,000 virtual funds and 12,000 live markets to trade.

Day 3 begins with a bullish gap up, and bulls are able to press prices even further upward, often eliminating the losses seen on Day 1. Generally speaking, a bullish candle on Day 2 is viewed as a stronger sign of an impending reversal. Join thousands of traders who choose a mobile-first broker for trading the markets. It means for every $100 you risk on a trade with the Morning Star pattern you make $15.2 on average. The Morning Star pattern is considered bullish, while the Evening Star pattern is considered bearish. The technical storage or access is required to create user profiles to send advertising, or to track the user on a website or across several websites for similar marketing purposes.

Famous traders: World’s Most Famous Traders of All Time

warren buffett

When traders place different orders, it gets recorded in the Order book. By analysing the order flow in the order book, you can predict the stock price movement. If bulk buy orders are pending in the order book, the stock price should react positively and rise. Analysis is the study of the price movement of a security. Several indicators in the technical chart help a trader determine whether the stock will rise or fall.

bank of england

The approach of Jones involves the studies of the flow of capital across markets and how different markets affect each other. He studies multiple markets and identifies the change of trend in some sectors, based on which he speculates the likely movement of prices as well as change in the other sectors. His approach is to look at macro things and trades in swings of larger trends. Famous traders understood many things most trader don’t have in mind. Study their life and successes to level up your trading business. Since the formation of the New York Stock Exchange in 1792, players in various financial and commodities markets have made vast sums of money for themselves and investors.

  • Some are able to keep their winning streak going perpetually, while others get lucky once, only to lose it all.
  • The pair GBP/DEM (pound sterling/German mark) falls by 2.5% per day.
  • You might have noticed that professional analysts and traders use such words as ‘perhaps’, ‘maybe’ or ‘there is a probability …’ in their comments.
  • This area of study clarifies the mental and emotional aspects that will dictate a trader’s decision and is an important factor in determining his success or failure in the trading process.

The loyalty to false trading ideas, which contradict the trading plan, also have a negative impact on trading balance. Never be psychologically involved in a trade and ignore any trading ideas, which push you to unsystematic behaviour. On September 14, 1900, age 23, he moved to New York, arriving in time for a strong bull market in stocks. He traded successfully, on the long side, at Harris, Hutton & Company stockbrokers, turning $10,000 into $50,000 in five days.

Stock trading as a profession/career

He was in Switzerland at the time of the indictment and never returned to the United States. He received a widely criticised presidential pardon from U.S. President Bill Clinton on January 20, 2001, Clinton’s last day in office.

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Personal life

Jones attributes his successful trades to his colleague Peter Borish, who mapped the 1987 market against the 1929 market, which also crashed. He shorted a number of stocks due to the similarity between the two sets of circumstances. His investment philosophy is intricate, but his trading style is mostly based on technical analysis. It is based on the well-known facts about the life of the people who have successfully traded in the world stock and Forex markets . I tried to take into account not only the profit made by them in the stock exchange but also their contribution to the development of modern trading.

Kenyan traders stage protests against Chinese businesses, China responds – Republic World

Kenyan traders stage protests against Chinese businesses, China responds.

Posted: Mon, 06 Mar 2023 09:46:00 GMT [source]

He also ice futures and optionsed the housing market and bought up bank stocks when it wasn’t fashionable to do so. John Paulson’s Advantage Fund is hurting at the moment, but NYU Stern School of Business graduate banked hard when he invested in gold a few years ago, shortly before its meteoric rise into the $1500/ounce level. Your results may differ materially from those expressed or utilized by Warrior Trading due to a number of factors. We do not track the typical results of our past or current customers. As a provider of educational courses, we do not have access to the personal trading accounts or brokerage statements of our customers.

Trading Philosophy

Five years after his famous trade, he was appointed as the chairman of the New York Stock Exchange . The range of results in these three studies exemplify the challenge of determining a definitive success rate for day traders. At a minimum, these studies indicate at least 50% of aspiring day traders will not be profitable. This reiterates that consistently making money trading stocks is not easy. Day Trading is a high risk activity and can result in the loss of your entire investment. The one thing all top successful traders have in common is that they all had a deep interest in trading and spent years honing their skills.

Traders engage in buying and selling bonds, stocks, futures and shares in hedge funds. A stock trader also conducts extensive research and observation of how financial markets perform. Other duties of a stock trader include comparison of financial analysis to current and future regulation of his or her occupation. Jones became a big name in financial markets because of his Black Monday Short, through which he was able to capture a 22 percent market crash while the other traders incurred huge losses. His portfolio appreciated 60 percent that month and 200 percent during that year.

day traders

Until now, Larry has provided educational and consulting services, wrote many books on trading, conducted seminars and gave invaluable advice to beginners. Derivatives allowed trading with low trading commissions, leverage and volatility allowed a trader to manage capital more efficiently. Larry began to work on improving existing strategies and developing his own forecasting methods. During the 70s when the Cold War was in full swing, the Soviet Union secretly purchased 30% of all American crops. The markets in the 70s were inflationary due to scarcity of crops, and Dennis took advantage of that by focusing on food production companies, netting him over $350 million. Ken Griffin is the founder of Citadel investments that has more than $30 billion in assets under management.

The year 2005 is considered unsuccessful for the company – then the profit was “only” 178%. Now the best trader is 131 in the Forbes 400 ranking with a net worth of $5 billion. During the 1987 Black Monday, when the Dow Jones index collapsed by more than 20%, the Jones fund not only resisted, but also showed a yield of 62% in October, and by the end of the year, profits exceeded 200%. The founder of the fund got nicknamed Black Monday Prophet. Steve now has a personal capital of $9.2 billion according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index. It was then that the trader thought about his own developments.

Traders Village

In May 1901, he anticipated a correction and went short, using 400% margin. He lost his entire stake, as theticker tapewas not updated fast enough to make current trading decisions. Louis, where he was not known, and went back to betting at bucket shops. His principles, including the effects of emotion on trading, continue to be studied. The trading strategy This strategy is generally used in intra-day trading and uses the pretext of the false breakaway of a range. This is based on the formation of a specific intraday candlestick which has a long body and short shadows.

The semi-autographical book “Reminisces of a Stock Operator” remains one of the most widely read books in the industry today. WD Gann (1878–1955) was a trader who used market forecasting methods based on geometry, astrology, and ancient mathematics. His mysterious technical tools include Gann angles and the Square of 9. As well as trading, Gann wrote a number of books and courses. Paul Tudor Jones thrust into the limelight in the 80s when he successfully predicted the 1987 stock market, as shown in the riveting one hour documentary called “Trader”.

Warren Buffett is often cited as the most successful investor of all time through his holding company, Berkshire Hathaway. There are several famous former traders who moved on to different careers, such as John Key and Jimmy Wales . However, this list is made up of traders famous for being traders. The lives of the world’s most famous traders are colored by both triumph and tragedy, with some exploits achieving mythological status within the industry.

Forget day trading! I’d use Warren Buffett’s ‘secret sauce’ to build wealth – Yahoo Finance UK

Forget day trading! I’d use Warren Buffett’s ‘secret sauce’ to build wealth.

Posted: Tue, 07 Mar 2023 11:03:58 GMT [source]

His family loaned him $1,600 to purchase a seat in the MidAmerica Commodity which costed $1,200 and he was effectively left with $400 in capital. He increased his initial $400 to $3,000 in the first year and then turned that into $100,000. He is one of the most prominent figures in the world of finance with his writings and interviews generating a lot of reactions in Wall Street. Today, Ken is one of the largest names in the world of algorithmic trading. In 2015, he was fired from PIMCO and headed to a relatively smaller firm called Janus Capital where he trades more than $10 billion.

traders and investors

Traders have been speculating on major market movements since the early 20th century. Discover ten of the world’s most legendary traders and learn how to start your journey to becoming a successful trader. Please ensure you understand how this product works and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing money. His trading career began in 1995 at Enron Corporation as an oil analyst, and then as an assistant trader.